Stonehenge is among the most distinguished prehistoric monuments in Britain. The Stonehenge that may be seen right this moment is the ultimate stage that was accomplished about 3,500 years in the past.
In accordance with the monument’s web site, Stonehenge was inbuilt 4 levels:
First stage: The primary model of Stonehenge was a big earthwork or Henge, comprising a ditch, financial institution and the Aubrey holes, all in all probability constructed round 3100 BC.
The Aubrey holes are spherical pits within the chalk, about one metre (3.Three toes) extensive and deep, with steep sides and flat bottoms.
They kind a circle about 86.6 metres (284 toes) in diameter.
Excavations revealed cremated human bones in a number of the chalk filling, however the holes themselves have been seemingly not made for use as graves, however as a part of a non secular ceremony.
After this primary stage, Stonehenge was deserted and left untouched for greater than 1,000 years.
Second stage: The second and most dramatic stage of Stonehenge began round 2150 years BC, when about 82 bluestones from the Preseli mountains in south-west Wales have been transported to the location. It is thought that the stones, a few of which weigh 4 tonnes every, have been dragged on rollers and sledges to the waters at Milford Haven, the place they have been loaded onto rafts.
They have been carried on water alongside the south coast of Wales and up the rivers Avon and Frome, earlier than being dragged overland once more close to Warminster and Wiltshire.
The ultimate stage of the journey was primarily by water, down the river Wylye to Salisbury, then the Salisbury Avon to west Amesbury.
The journey spanned practically 240 miles, and as soon as on the web site, the stones have been arrange within the centre to kind an incomplete double circle.
Throughout the identical interval, the unique entrance was widened and a pair of Heel Stones have been erected. The nearer a part of the Avenue, connecting Stonehenge with the River Avon, was constructed aligned with the midsummer dawn.
Third stage: The third stage of Stonehenge, which passed off about 2000 years BC, noticed the arrival of the sarsen stones (a kind of sandstone), which have been bigger than the bluestones.
They have been seemingly introduced from the Marlborough Downs (40 kilometres, or 25 miles, north of Stonehenge).
The most important of the sarsen stones transported to Stonehenge weighs 50 tonnes, and transportation by water wouldn’t have been doable, so it is suspected that they have been transported utilizing sledges and ropes.
Calculations have proven that it could have taken 500 males utilizing leather-based ropes to drag one stone, with an additional 100 males wanted to put the rollers in entrance of the sledge.
These stones have been organized in an outer circle with a steady run of lintels – horizontal helps.
Contained in the circle, 5 trilithons – constructions consisting of two upright stones and a 3rd throughout the highest as a lintel – have been positioned in a horseshoe association, which may nonetheless be seen right this moment.
Ultimate stage: The fourth and remaining stage passed off simply after 1500 years BC, when the smaller bluestones have been rearranged within the horseshoe and circle that may be seen right this moment.
The unique variety of stones within the bluestone circle was in all probability round 60, however these have since been eliminated or damaged up. Some stay as stumps beneath floor stage.